International Relations

The Francke Foundations worldwide

The reform impulses of August Hermann Francke were followed with attentive interest in the European centres of power. Important intermediaries such as the diplomat at the English court and author of the first Russian grammar, Heinrich Wilhelm Ludolf (1655-1712), established contacts with the court of Peter the Great (1672-1725) in Moscow and later St. Petersburg. As early as 1698, the Tsar's educational advisors sought contact with Francke in Halle. The British Queen Anne (1665-1714) supported English pupils at Halle's orphanage. The court preachers at the London court who were influenced by Francke, Anton Wilhelm Böhme (1663-1722) and Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen (1694-1776), worked as mediators of Halle's pietism to South India and North America. Francke also had close contact with the Danish King Frederick IV (1671-1730) and Pietism had a fundamental influence on the Danish church system. At the suggestion and with the financing of the Danish king, theologians from Halle set up a mission in the Danish trading establishment Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) in southern India on the Coromandel coast. This was the first permanent Protestant mission in history.

With Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen (1670-1739) and especially Gotthilf August Francke (1698-1769), Francke's son-in-law and son continued the development of the worldwide communications network in the position of director, and they integrated North America in particular. This network linked a large group of people open to pietistic reform ideas across national borders and continents with the Halle's orphanage. On this basis, intensive reciprocal intercultural, personnel and material exchange processes flourished. For example, the Halle's orphanage model found numerous imitators on the territory of present-day southern Poland, while, conversely, many pupils and students from Silesia moved to the schools of the Francke Foundations. A large number of theologians and teachers trained in Halle were transferred to the countries of the Danish king, in return numerous naturalia from the Danish colonies found their way into the art and naturalia chamber of the foundations.


After Francke's death in 1727, his son Gotthilf August Francke was essential for the institutionalisation and consolidation of this network. However, the third director was not only a pronounced networker, but also decisively responsible for the further establishment and expansion of the Francke Foundations, which owe their present image to him to no small extent.

Literature

Das Hallesche Waisenhaus. Die Franckeschen Stiftungen mit ihren Sehenswürdigkeiten. Hg. v. Thomas Müller-Bahlke. 3. erw. u. akt. Ausgabe. Wiesbaden 2015 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 1). 

Die Welt verändern. August Hermann Francke – ein Lebenswerk um 1700. Jahresausstellung der Franckeschen Stiftungen zum Jubiläum des 350. Geburtstags August Hermann Franckes vom 24. März bis 21. Juli 2013. Hg. v. Holger Zaunstöck, Thomas Müller-Bahlke u. Claus Veltmann. Halle 2013 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 29).

Halle und Osteuropa. Zur europäischen Ausstrahlung des hallischen Pietismus. Hg. v. Johannes Wallmann und Udo Sträter. Tübingen 1998 (Hallesche Forschungen, 1).

Baltic States

In the Baltic states of the 18th century there was an influential German minority, mostly of Lutheran faith. Pietist Piety came early and many German Balts endeavoured to spread Pietism among Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians and to promote national languages for this purpose. For example, Eberhard Gutsleff (ca. 1691-1749), a passionate follower of Francke since his days of study in Halle, published an Estonian house and church hymn book which was printed in Halle. In Alp (Albu) near Reval (Tallinn) an orphanage was founded in 1717. The Lithuanian Seminary in the Francke Foundations, which Gotthilf August Francke founded in the summer of 1727, was only of short duration. Johann Richter (life data unknown) and Friedrich Wilhelm Haack (1706-1754) taught a number of students and in 1730 a Lithuanian-German dictionary was published.

Literature

Michael Rocher: Pietislk koolikorraldus Baltikums? Uurimus Francke pedagoogiumi kollokorralduse »ekspordist« Tallinna ja Riia kórgematesse koolidesse aastail 1720-1770, übers. von Kairit Kaur, in: Tallinn Linnaarhiiv (Hrsg.), Vana Tallinn, 27 (31), 2016,  104–132.

 »Mach dich auf und werde licht _Celies nu, topi gaišs« Zu Leben und Werk Ernst Glücks (1654-1705). Akten der Tagung anlässlich seines 300. Todestages vom 10. Bis 13. Mai 2005 in Halle (Saale). Hg. v. Christiane Schiller u. Māra Grudule. Wiesbaden 2010.

Christiane Schiller: Das Litauische Seminar in Halle (1727-1740) und seine Mitglieder. Auf Spurensuche. In: Acta Baltica 32, 1994, 195–223.

Bohemia and Moravia

The universalist and educational ideas of Bohemia Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670) were the model for August Hermann Francke. Through the Netherlands he came into possession of a partial estate of Comenius and posthumously published one of his works. When parts of the Protestant population were expelled from Bohemia around 1700, they found refuge in Brandenburg-Prussia. Francke took care of their fate. Religious books in Czech were now printed in Halle, including translations of the books of A.H. Francke and Freylinghausen. The publication of a Czech Bible in 1722 was the culmination of this development. Heinrich Milde (1676-1739), an employee of A.H. Francke, was responsible for the contacts of the Halle's orphanage to Eastern Europe and looked after Bohemian exile communities in Barby an der Elbe and in Lusatia. He bequeathed his private book collection with numerous Czech prints to the library of the orphanage.

The Comenius manuscripts which Francke had received were rediscovered only in 1935 by Dmitri I. Tschižewskij (1894-1977) in the library of the Francke Foundations. Today they are kept in the National Library in Prague, after the GDR handed them over to the CSSR as an official gift during a state visit in 1957. Shortly before his death, Werner Koorthase (1937-2008) bequeathed a copy of the manuscripts to the Francke Foundations.

Literature

Brigitte Klosterberg: »Der Segen dieser seiner Reisen wird noch in der Ewigkeit offenbar werden.« Heinrich Mildes Reisen zur Unterstützung böhmischer Protestanten. In: Durch die Welt im Auftrag des Herrn. Reisen von Pietisten im 18. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Anne Schröder-Kahnt u. Claus Veltmann. Halle 2018. (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 35), 139–149.

Brigitte Klosterberg/Mechthild Hofmann: »das eintzige zeitliche Vermögen«. Bücher als Speicher der Erinnerung in Flucht und Exil. In: Wissensspeicher der Reformation. Die Marienbibliothek und die Bibliothek des Waisenhauses in Halle. Ausstellung zum Auftakt des Reformationsjubiläums im Historischen Waisenhaus vom 30. Oktober 2016 bis zum 26. März 2017. Hg. von Doreen Zerbe. Halle 2016 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 34), 172–181.

  • continued to be published:

Franz Hofmann: Die »Halleschen Funde« - Schicksal einer Handschrift. In: Comenius-Jahrbuch 5, 1997,  69– 86.

Werner Korthaase: Was mit der »Consultatio catholica«, dem Hauptwerk des Comenius, von 1934 bis 1945 geschah. In: Comenius-Jahrbuch.  3, 1995,  72–90.

Greece

A surprising, although an unsuccessful plan determined the contacts of the Francke Foundations to Greece.  Created by the diplomat and linguist Heinrich Wilhelm Ludolf (1655-1712), a Collegium Graecum for young Greeks was to be built in Halle.  Here they were trained to influence the Greek Orthodox Church in the sense of Protestantism. In 1700 two young theologians were sent to Constantinople (Istanbul) and Adrianople (Edirne) to implement the plan. They were to convince Greeks to study in Halle, which also happened in 1702 after the founding of the Collegium orientale theologicum. However, the narrowness of the Pietist circles and the lack of a scholarship soon made them return. The only lasting success of the undertaking was the parallel edition of the New Testament in Ancient Greek and New Greek. Today it is regarded as a milestone on the Greek way to later national independence in the 19th century.

Literature

Ulrich Moenning: Die griechischen Studenten am Hallenser Collegium orientale theologicum. In: Halle und Osteuropa. Zur europäischen Ausstrahlung des hallischen Pietismus. Hg. v. Johannes Wallmann und Udo Sträter. Tübingen 1998 (Hallesche Forschungen 1), 299–329.

Kingdom of Denmark

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Danish King Frederick IV (1671-1730) initiated the first sustainable Lutheran mission in South East India. From the very beginning, Halle's Pietists acted as missionaries in the Danish Tranquebar branch there. In 1706, the company known as the Danish-Halle-Mission strengthened the contact between the Francke Foundations and the Danish royal family. A visible expression of this was the orphanage in Copenhagen, built in 1727 according to Halle's model. Christian VI (1699-1746), from 1730 Friedrich's successor on the Danish royal throne, massively promoted the pietistic reforms of the church and school system in his lands. He was in close contact with his cousin Count Christian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (1691-1771), probably the most important noble ally of Halle's orphanage in the 18th century. Numerous Pietists came to Denmark via the axis Halle - Wernigerode and had a lasting influence on spiritual and cultural life there. This applies, for example, to the theologian Adam Struensee (1708-1791), whose son Johann Friedrich Struensee (1737-1772) is one of the most famous pupils of the Latin School of the Francke Foundations. Johann Friedrich not only became famous for his medical research, but also, as a leading minister, initiated important social reforms in Denmark. 

Literature

Juliane Engelhardt: Pietismus und Krise. Der hallesche und der radikale Pietismus im dänischen Gesamtstaat, in: Historische Zeitschrift 307, 2018, H. 2, 341–369.

Mit Göttlicher Güte geadelt. Adel und Hallescher Pietismus im Spiegel der Fürstlichen Sammlungen Stolberg-Wernigerode. Hg. v. Claus Veltmann, Thomas Ruhland u. Thomas Müller-Bahlke. Halle 2015 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 31).

 

Kingdom of Great Britain

Heinrich Wilhelm Ludolf is at the beginning of the connections between the Francke Foundations and Great Britain. As secretary of Prince George of Denmark (1653-1708), the later husband of Queen Anne (1665-1714), he worked in London from 1686 until his death. He placed the Hallesian Pietist Anton Wilhelm Böhme (1673-1722) as court preacher and pastor at the German court chapel in St. James (1705), thus laying the foundation for sustainable networking among the Hallesians. Francke himself became a corresponding member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in June 1700. London established itself as the most important hub in the international network of Halle Pietism during the 18th century. Here the connections from and to North America and India converged. Böhme paved the way for Francke's ideas into the English-speaking world by translating important writings such as the "Blessed Footsteps". He also referred English students to Halle, for whom an "English House" (now House 26) was built with the help of English donors. Bohemian successor Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen (1694-1776) later became the irreplaceable link between Gotthilf August Francke and the North American Lutheran congregations in Pennsylvania and Georgia. It is also widely unknown that the Halle student Georg Müller (1805-1898) founded five orphanages in Ashley Down, Bristol, in 1836, following the example of Halle. Today's George Müller Foundation continues this charitable work in England according to modern criteria.

Literature

London und das Hallesche Waisenhaus. Eine Kommunikationsgeschichte im 18. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Holger Zaunstöck, Andreas Gestrich u. Thomas Müller-Bahlke. Halle 2014 (Hallesche Forschungen, 39).

Christina Jetter-Staib: Halle, England und das Reich Gottes weltweit – Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen (1694-1776). Halle 2013 (Hallesche Forschungen, 34).

  • also published:

Alexander Schunka: Zwischen Kontingenz und Providenz. Frühe Englandkontakte der Halleschen Pietisten und protestantische Irenik. In: Pietismus und Neuzeit 34, 2008, 82–114.

Netherlands

The religious and social circumstances in the Netherlands at the end of the 17th century were best known through August Hermann Francke's correspondence with others, the theologian Friedrich Breckling (1629-1711) who had fled there. On this way he was also informed about the general openness of the Dutch for puritanical spiritual currents and the reform theological special way of the "Nadere Reformatie". In 1705 A.H. Francke also undertook his only trip abroad to the Netherlands. But the Pietist way of life found there few real followers. Nevertheless, the country in its symbiosis of spiritual life, economic activity and social commitment was an important model for the Halle school town of August Hermann Francke.

Due to the wealth of its cities at the end of the 17th century, the Netherlands was regarded as a pioneering country, especially in orphan care. This was also known in Halle. Francke's closest collaborator, Georg Heinrich Neubauer (1666-1726), had already travelled to the Netherlands via Hannover in 1697. His mission was to inspect existing orphanages in Amsterdam, such as the Burgerweeshuis. The orphanage and care for the poor in the Netherlands, one of the most progressive states of the time, was to serve as a model for the planned Hallesche orphanage. With a catalogue of approx. 200 individual questions (!) all important information was recorded. On the basis of Neubauer's findings, Francke laid the organisational and structural foundation stone for his orphanage in 1698.

But it was not only for the Halle orphanage construction that Neubauer's journey was exemplary. Neubauer himself wrote meticulous notes to help subsequent travellers of the Pietist network with their travel preparations. Like today's travel guides or travel blogs, the notes contain valuable information on travelling abroad, including an illuminating explanation of what a traveller in the 18th century had to bear in mind when travelling in a Schuyte (a flat boat that was pulled through the canals).

Literature

Holger Zaunstöck: Auf der Suche nach einem »Modell«. Georg Heinrich Neubauers Reise in die Niederlande (1697/98), in: Durch die Welt im Auftrag des Herrn. Reisen von Pietisten im 18. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Anne Schröder-Kahnt u. Claus Veltmann, Halle 2018 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 35), 89–105.

Friedrich Breckling (1629–1711). Prediger, »Wahrheitszeuge« und Vermittler des Pietismus im niederländischen Exil. Hg. v. Brigitte Klosterberg u. Guido Naschert. Halle 2011 (Kleine Schriftenreihe der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 11).

  • continued to be published:

Udo Sträter: Interessierter Beobachter oder Agent in eigener Sache? August Hermann Franckes Hollandreise 1705. In: Goldenes Zeitalter und Jahrhundert der Aufklärung. Kulturtransfer zwischen den Niederlanden und dem mitteldeutschen Raum im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Erdmut Jost u. Holger Zaunstöck in Zusammenarbeit mit Wolfgang Savelsberg. Halle 2012, 62–77.

 

North America

Already August Hermann Francke had an interest in the New World and was in a scientific-theological correspondence with the Puritan clergyman and scholar Cotton Mather (1663-1728) in Boston. During the tenure of the third director of the Francke Foundations, Gotthilf August Francke, the Hallesche Pietists deepened their contacts with North America. From 1731, when around 20,000 Protestants were expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg because of their faith and were looking for a new home (the so-called Salzburg emigrants), the orphanage took an active part in the care of these religious refugees. A not insignificant part of the Salzburgers subsequently moved to the newly founded colony of Georgia in what was then British North America. They received support from Halle's side not only in the form of donations and printed works, but also from Halle's pastors, who accompanied them to their new homeland and settled there with them. A short time later, the German Lutherans in Pennsylvania asked their contact Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen in London for the placement of trained pastors. Ziegenhagen turned to Gotthilf August Francke, who sent Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg (1711-1787) in 1741. Today Mühlenberg is considered the "Patriarch of the Lutheran Church of North America". His sons, educated in Halle, were to become influential personalities of early US-American history. Friedrich (Frederick) August (1750-1801) is known as the first speaker of the House of Representatives and first signatory of the Bill of Rights, Johann (John) Peter Gabriel (1746-1807) fought as Brigadier General under George Washington (1731-1799) and is honoured with a monument on Capitol Hill.

Literature

Hallesche Pastoren in Pennsylvania, 1743–1825. Eine kritische Quellenedition zu ihrer Amtstätigkeit in Nordamerika. Herausgegeben von Mark Häberlein, Thomas Müller-Bahlke und Hermann Wellenreuther. Halle 2019ff.  (Hallesche Quellenpublikationen und Repertorien, 15).

The Transatlantic World of Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg in the Eighteenth Century. Edited by Hermann Wellenreuther, Thomas Müller-Bahlke, A. Gregg Roeber. Halle 2013 (Hallesche Forschungen, 35).

Freiheit Fortschritt und Verheißung. Blickwechsel zwischen Europa und Nordamerika seit der frühen Neuzeit. Hg. v. Claus Veltmann, Jürgen Gröschl u. Thomas Müller-Bahlke. Halle 2011 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 27).

Salzburg – Halle – Nordamerika. Ein zweisprachiges Find- und Lesebuch zum Georgia-Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen. Hg. v. Thomas Müller-Bahlke u. Jürgen Gröschl. Tübingen 1999 (Hallesche Quellenpublikationen und Repertorien, 4).

  • continued to be published:

Wolfgang Flügel: Hallesche Pastoren und ihre Gemeinden in Pennsylvania 1742–1820. Deutsche Lutheraner zwischen Persistenz und Assimilation. Berlin, Boston 2019 (Hallische Beiträge zur Geschichte des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit, 14).

Alexander Pyrges: Das Kolonialprojekt EbenEzer. Formen und Mechanismen protestantischer Expansion in der atlantischen Welt des 18. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart 2015 (Transatlantische historische Studien, 53).

Thomas J. Müller: Kirche zwischen zwei Welten. Die Obrigkeitsproblematik bei Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg und die Kirchengründung der deutschen Lutheraner in Pennsylvania. Stuttgart 1994 (Transatlantische historische Studien, 2).

 

Poland and Silesia

From the very beginning there was a close connection to the Protestants in re-Catholicized Habsburg Silesia. Since its establishment in 1695, the Pädagogium Regium, the school established for the nobility and the bourgeoisie on the grounds of the Francke Foundations, has been frequented by a particularly large number of children from Silesia. The Polish lessons from 1702 at the Collegium Orientale Theologicum and the printing of the Bible in Polish in 1726 marked further years of intensive efforts by the Halle Pietists to support the denominationally oppressed Lutherans in Poland and Silesia. Lutheran children were trained in Francke's schools and in 1709 an attempt was made to employ two of Francke's closest collaborators as teachers and pastors at the Church of Grace and School in Cieszyn. Francke was supported by a group of pietistically minded aristocrats who had family ties to Silesia. In Breslau (Wrocław), for example, the Halle emissary Anhard Adelung (died in 1745) worked from 1712-1745. Orphanages after Halle model developed 1718 in Sorau (Żary), 1719 in Züllichau (Sulechów) and Ober-Glauche (Głuchów Górny) and 1754 also in Bunzlau (Bolesławiec). In particular, the orphanage built by Nadler Sigismund Steinbart (1677-1739) in Züllichau developed into a successful offshoot of Halle's model through the establishment of business enterprises, the Frommmann bookstore and its own pedagogy. The missionary focus of the Institutum Judaicum et Muhammedicum, founded in 1728 by Francke's pupil Johann Heinrich Callenberg (1694-1760), was Polish Judaism. The Jewish communities were visited by the Institute's travelling staff, whose diaries from the years 1730/31 document a pronounced interreligious culture of conflict.

Literature

Halle i Sulechów – ośrodki pietyzmu i edukacji, tło religijno-historyczne, powiązania europejskie. Hg. v. Bogumiła Burda u. Anna Chodorowska. Zielona Góra 2019.

Uczniowie i nauczyciele szkół sulechowskich i ich powiązania europejskie. 300 lat Fundacji Steinbarta. Praca zbiorowa,  pod redakcją  naukową Bogumiły Burdy, Zielona Góra (im Druck).

Bibliographischer Nachweis der Drucke des Waisenhausverlags zu Halle (1698–1806) in Sulechów (Züllichau) und Cieszyn (Teschen). Hg. v. Brigitte Klosterberg. Halle 2019 (Hallesche Quellenpublikationen und Repertorien; 17).

Thomas Müller-Bahlke: »Weil Halle auch in dieser Gegend einigen gefährlich und verdächtig vorkommt«. Das Zusammenwirken von Adel und Pietismus bei der Gründung der Gnadenkirche in Teschen. In: Mit Göttlicher Güte geadelt. Adel und Hallescher Pietismus im Spiegel der fürstlichen Sammlungen Stolberg-Wernigerode. Katalog zur Jahresausstellung der Franckeschen Stiftungen vom 19. Oktober 2014 bis 22. März 2015. Hg. von Claus Veltmann, Thomas Ruhland u. Thomas Müller-Bahlke. Halle 2014 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 31), 70–87.

Russia

The connections of Halle's orphanage to Russia were favoured by the reform policy of Tsar Peter the Great (1672-1725). Francke corresponded about Russia with the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1677-1752) and established manifold relations about the Orientalist Heinrich Wilhelm Ludolf. The latter was the author of the earliest grammar of the Russian language and gave the first academic Russian lessons in Halle in 1698. Employees and students of A. H. Francke benefited from these contacts and language skills and found jobs as house teachers, pastors, civil servants and physicians in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Siberia. In Narva, Astrakhan and Tobolsk orphanages were also built according to the Halle model. The active medicine and book trade of the Halle orphanage also extended as far as these remote areas. Scientists, such as the Siberian researcher Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746), used the good connections to Laurentius Blumentrost the Younger (1692-1755), who had studied in Halle and later worked as personal physician to the Tsar and founding president of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. An important contact also existed with Feofan Prokopovitsch (1681-1736), Archbishop of Novgorod and advisor to Peter the Great.

Literature

Holger Zaunstöck: Halle, London, St. Petersburg: Emerging outlines of an early 18th century story of communication. In: Россия и западноевропейское Просвещение. Cб. науч. тр., сост.: Н.П. Копанева, отв. ред.: В.Р. Фирсов, ред.: С.А. Давыдова, Н.П. Копанева. Рос. нац. б-ка, Петровское ист. о во. Санкт-Петербург 2016, c. 40–55.

Die Erforschung Sibiriens im 18. Jahrhundert. Beiträge der Deutsch-Russischen Begegnungen in den Franckeschen Stiftungen. Hg. v. Wieland Hintzsche u. Joachim Otto Habeck. Halle 2012.

Die Zarin und der Teufel. Europäische Russlandbilder aus vier Jahrhunderten. Ausstellung in den Franckeschen Stiftungen zu Halle vom 15. März bis 18. Mai 2003. Hg. v. Hermann Goltz. Halle 2003 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 11).

Michail Fundaminski: Die Russica-Sammlung der Franckeschen Stiftungen zu Halle. Aus der Geschichte der deutsch-russischen kulturellen Beziehungen im 18. Jahrhundert. Tübingen 1998 (Hallesche Quellenpublikationen und Repertorien, 2).

 

South India

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Danish King Frederick IV (1671-1730) intended to establish a Protestant mission in Tranquebar on the southeast coast of India. Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg (1682-1719) and Heinrich Plütschau (1677-1752), two pupils of A.H. Francke, were the first missionaries to be sent to Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) on the Coromandel coast. In 1706 they reached the Danish trading colony and learned the national languages Tamil and Portuguese, founded schools based on Halles' model and established close contacts with the local people. Perhaps their greatest achievement was the translation of the Bible into Tamil. Ziegenbalg and Plütschau were the first of 80 largely Hallesian missionaries who were sent to India over a period of almost 150 years - the first ever permanent Protestant mission. On the spot and in India in general, the Hallesian missionaries were in competition with other European-Christian missionaries, such as the Jesuits and the Herrnhutern, and often enough they also had conflicts with the Danish and later English colonial rulers, whose goals were not congruent with those of the mission.

Many objects in the Cabinet of Artefacts and Natural Curiosities as well as tens to thousands of letters, translations and a large collection of palm leaf manuscripts in the archives of the Francke Foundations testify to the intensive preoccupation with Indian cultures as well as the exploration of nature. The art and cultural objects demonstrably acquired through purchase, exchange or donation, as well as the natural objects collected, later became a core component of the art and natural history chamber of the foundations, which can still be experienced today. The collections fulfilled two tasks: On the one hand, they fulfilled an educational purpose and symbolized the variety and greatness of the Divine Creation on the basis of the multitude and diversity of the objects. On the other hand, they also represented an exhibition of the mission's achievements and presented its successes and the sought-after progress of the Kingdom of God in the world. These collections as well as diaries and correspondence were also sources for the first Protestant missionary journal »Hallesche Berichte« , published since 1710. Among the famous subscribers was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). In 1919 the Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church (TELC) was founded on the heritage of the »Danish-Halle Mission« . Since 2017 the »Museum for Intercultural Dialogue« has been open in the former home of the missionary Ziegenbalg in Tharangambadi. This is a joint project of the Francke Foundations and the Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church in South India with the help of many partners. The aim is to present the diversity of the historical players, the non-linear development and the cultural intersections of Indian and European societies.

Literature

Thomas Ruhland: Pietistische Konkurrenz und Naturgeschichte. Die Südasienmission der Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine und die Dänisch-Englisch-Hallesche Mission (1755–1802). Herrnhut 2018 (Unitas Fratrum. Beiheft, 31).

Mission und Forschung. Translokale Wissensproduktion zwischen Indien und Europa im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Heike Liebau, Andreas Nehring u. Brigitte Klosterberg. Halle 2010 (Hallesche Forschungen, 29).

Heike Liebau: Die indischen Mitarbeiter der Tranquebarmission (1706–1845): Katecheten, Schulmeister, Übersetzer. Tübingen 2008 (Hallesche Forschungen, 26). Englische Übersetzung: Culturalencounters in India: the localco-workers of theTranquebarmission,18th to 19thcenturies. Transl. from the German by Rekha V. Rajan. London, New York 2018.

Geliebtes Europa // Ostindische Welt. 300 Jahre interkultureller Dialog im Spiegel der Dänisch-Halleschen Mission. Katalog zur Jahresausstellung der Franckeschen Stiftungen vom 7. Mai bis 3. Oktober 2006. Hg. v. Heike Liebau. Halle 2006 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen, 16).

Halle and the beginning of Protestant Christianity in India. Hg. v.  Andreas Gross, Y. Vincent Kumaradoss u. Heike Liebau. 3 Bde. Halle 2006.

Hungary and the Carpathian Basin

Pietism also gained a broad following in Hungary and Transylvania, most of which belonged to the Catholic Habsburg Empire. András Torkos (1669-1737), who studied with August Hermann Francke on the advice of Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705), is regarded as the father of Hungarian Pietism. He translated Luther's "Small Catechism" into Hungarian and had it printed in Halle. Francke's writings subsequently found their way to Hungary, translated by Hungarian students in Halle. One of the translators, János Szabó (1695-1756), opened an orphanage in Chobing (Nemescsó) in 1724 based on Halle's model. Mátyás Bél (1684-1749) stands out among the many Pietists of the Carpathian Basin who worked in their homeland in the spirit of August Hermann Francke. He studied in Halle from 1704 to 1708 and then worked for many years as a parish priest, school principal and scholar in Bratislava, which during his lifetime was also called "Little Hall". Bél went down in the intellectual history of his country as the author of "Notitia Hungariae historico-geographica", a fundamental work on the history and geography of Hungary.

Literature

Die Hungarica Sammlung der Franckeschen Stiftungen zu Halle. Hg. v. Brigitte Klosterberg und István Monok.

Teil 1: Porträts. Bearb. v. Attila Verók u. György Rózsa. Tübingen 2003 (Hallesche Quellenpublikationen und Repertorien; 7).

Teil 2: Handschriften. Bd. 1–2. Bearb. v. Zoltán Csepregi. Budapest 2015.

Teil 3: Alte Drucke. Bd. 1–2. Bearb. v. Attila Verók. Budapest 2017.

Historische Karten und Ansichten. Bearb. v. László Pászti u. Attila Verók. Halle 2009 (Kataloge der Franckeschen Stiftungen,22).

  • Continued to be published:

Ohnmaßgebliches Project. Ein Beitrag zur Reform des ungarischen Schulwesens zu Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts.  Matthias Bel. Mit einer kommentierten Einl. hrsg. von Zsuzsanna Kiséry. Leipzig 2013 (Quellen zur protestantischen Bildungsgeschichte, 2).